Well option A) Just use linux
Some people do use vagrant (or other VM) to do development on windows. If that doesn’t work for you, you could just install php and git, and just develop it directly on windows. Generally its pretty easy to do so, just do a git clone of the MediaWiki core gerrit repo. Go to the directory that contains your git clone of mediawiki core. Run:
php -S 127.0.0.1:80
(If php is not in your path, you may have to use the full C:\Wherever\Your\PHP\Binary\Is\php.exe )
From there, go to http://localhost in your web browser, follow onscreen instructions to install (You may have to adjust your php.ini file to enable certain php extensions. At the very least you probably need to enable the sqlite php extension, as that’s the easiest database to use in this setup, and doesn’t require any further installation).
If you have any trouble, don’t hesitate to ask. The people on #mediawiki irc channel can also help if you want something more real time.